الثلاثاء 18 يونيو 2024
رئيس مجلسى الإدارة والتحرير
عبدالرحيم علي
رئيس التحرير
داليا عبدالرحيم
رئيس مجلسي الإدارة والتحرير
عبدالرحيم علي
رئيس التحرير
داليا عبدالرحيم

البوابة التعليمية

الثانوية العامة 2023| مراجعة الساعات الأخيرة قبل امتحان «الإنجليزي» اليوم

ستاندر - تقارير
ستاندر - تقارير
تابع أحدث الأخبار عبر تطبيق google news

يؤدي طلاب الثانوية العامة بشعبتيها الأدبية والعلمية (الدور الأول) اليوم الخميس، الامتحان في مادة اللغة الأجنبية الأولى.

ومجموع درجات اللغة الأجنبية الأولى 50 درجة، ويبلغ عدد الأسئلة المقالية 3، مخصص لها 8 درجات، والموضوعية 34 سؤالًا مخصص لها 42 درجة، ليصبح إجمالي عدد الأسئلة 37 سؤالًا.

ويؤدي الامتحانات هذا العام 783025 طالبا وطالبة، من بينهم عدد 276211 طالبا وطالبة بالشعبة الأدبية، وعدد 391671 طالبا وطالبة بالشعبة العلمية (علوم) وعدد 98658 طالبا وطالبة بالشعبة العلمية (رياضيات).

وتقدم «البوابة نيوز»، مراجعة الساعات الأخيرة قبل الامتحان، أعدها معلم أول اللغة الإنجليزية ا.عبد الرحيم توفيق عبادي:

 ا.عبدالرحيم توفيق

 

يستخدم الماضًي البسٌيط مع الكلمات الآتٌية  :-  
1-Yesterday – ago – last ( night / week / month / year / summer /…) – in the past  -once  – In +2000    –  from…. to ….. The other day – once upon a time – one day – in those days  
did OR didn’t + INFINTIVE المصدر  في النفي والسؤال نستخدم
Ex: - I didn’t waste my time last year but I did my best. 
Ex: - Did you study your lessons well?               
Ex:-The pharaohs ruled Egypt for thousands of years.              FOR   يمكن استخدام 
Ex:-I stayed with my parents for six months. I don’t stay with them now.لا اسكن  
Ex:-He spent some time in Paris when he was young. 
EX: How long ago did he stay?
Ex:-How long have you known your best friend?     هذه الصيغة فتكون المضارع التام    

2**يسٌتخدم الماضي البسيطٌ للتعبيرٌ عن عادة في الماضي وانتهت لذلك يمٌكن استخدام الكلمات الآتيةٌ مع- الماضي البسيطٌ 
Always دائما / usually عادة / often غالبا / sometimes أحيانا / never ابدا / every
Ex:-He usually phoned me when I was young.


نستخدم الماضي البسيطٌ مع التعبيرٌات الآتيةٌ 3**
It’s time /     I would rather     /    I wish    /     if only     /     if الحالة الثانيةٌ
It’s time (high time / about time / almost time) + فاعل    + ماضى بسيط

Ex:-It’s time he paid the bill.                  
EX: it`s high time Father arrived.
Ex:-I would rather she had helped him yesterday .نستخدم ماضى تام لوجود أمس 
Ex:-If you studied hard, you would succeed.                              IF الحالة الثانية من

4-Used to+inf                                         اعتاد ان يفعل شىء في الماضى وانتهى 
Ex:-When I was young, I used to love music.
Ex:-I no longer love like music.                Ex:-I don't love music any longer.
Ex:-When I was young, I didn't use to drink milk but now I do.
Ex:-Did you use to get up early?
Ex:-I was in the habit of drinking milk when I was young.

5- am / is / are/become /get used to + v. –   ing/    او اسم  اعتاد ان يفعل شىء 
Ex:-I get used to playing chess with my friends.
Ex:-I am used to hot weather.                Hot weather اسم 
Ex:-I (am used to – used to – didn't use to – wasn't used to ) like maths, but it is my favourite subject now.

فاعل + last + ماضى بسيط + when + ماضي = تام منفى مضارع+ since + ماضى بسيط
Ex:-I last saw Simon when we were on holiday.
EX:I haven’t seen Judy since we were on holiday.

The Past continuous tense الماضى المستمر
Yesterday evening / yesterday morning / yesterday afternoon/All morning / all evening  /  All last night  /  week / month
Ex:-Between eight and 10 last night .we were watching a football match on TV.
Ex:-I was studying English at 10 o’clock yesterday.
Ex:-While we were having dinner, my uncle came.
Ex:-When my uncle came, we were having dinner.
إذا كان فعل كان في الجملة الأولى بعد كلمة عندما لابد ان تكون الجملة الثانية ماضى بسيط ايضا      
Ex: when I was young, I (played – was playing) football with my friends.
إذا كان الحدثان مستمران لا يقطع أحدهما الآخر                                                               
Ex:-My brother was studying while I was playing chess in my room.
Ex:-While studying, I felt pain in my stomach.لاحظ مفيش فاعل بعد الكلمة الأولى  
تستخدم هذه الصيغة إذا دلت الجملة على عادة متكررة او ثابتة                                            
Ex:-When trying on new shoes, you should always wear socks.
During + noun اسم       Ex:-During the match, he got injured.
EX: During my visit to Alex, I met Mohammed Salah.
Ex: - He couldn’t hear the telephone because he was having a shower.
Ex: - he was having a shower so He couldn’t hear the telephone.
يمكن أن نعبر عن حدثين كانوا مستمرين في نفسي الوقت دون أن يقطع أحداهما الأخر باستخدام الماضي البسيط للحدثين
Ex: - While I made the dinner, the children watched TV.
Ex:- When I ( reached – was reaching ) the street I ( realized – was realizing )that I ( didn't know – wasn't knowing ) the number of Tom's house . I (was thinkingيفكر – thought) what to do when I suddenly (saw – was seeing) him.
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The Present Perfect tense زمن المضارع التام البسيط
Ex: - She has cleaned the room. The room is clean now.حدث تم وله اثر          
Ex: - We can’t go ahead with the meeting, BECAUSE / SINCE very few people have shown any interest.الجملة الاولي مضارع بسيط يبقى التانية مضارع تام لازم 
Ex: - I have lived in Cairo since 1990. I still live there.
Ex: - Since he graduated, he hasn’t found work anywhere.
Ex: - Since I have lived here, I haven’t seen my neighbours .الفعلان مستمران  
Ex: - He arrived home at 10: 30 last night since then he has been in bed.
Ex: - He has just phoned.            =            He phoned a moment ago .
Ex: - I have already done my homework.
في اخر السؤال تحديدا عند الدهشة أو التعجب خلي بالك منها بالله عليك                                
Ex: - Have you finished the homework already?   - OH! I can’t believe that.
Ex: - He hasn’t arrived yet. في حالة النفي في آخر الجملة                                      
Ex: - We have bought a new car recently.       I haven’t seen him lately.
Ex: - I have never traveled outside Egypt.تدل على النفي ولا يجوز معها نفي تاني      
Ex: - Have you ever climbed a mountain? تأتي في السؤال في وسط السؤال تحديدا     
Ex: - This is the worst match I’ve ever seen .تستخدم مع صفات التفضيل                
Ex: - This is the first time I have ever visited Paris.
Ex: - Nothing like this has ever happened to us.   مع الجمل التي تبدا ب لا                
Ex: - No student has ever this question.
Have you ever been to + المكان      Have you ever been to London?
-NO, I have never visited London before.    -YES, I have visited London. 
Up till now / so far / in the last …. / In the past …../ During……/Over the years/ over the ages /throughout history / this is the (first / second / only …) time هناك بعض الكلمات الدالة الأخرى ركز فيها                                                 
Ex: - He has gone to Paris. He is still there.ذهب إلى مكان ولم يعود                     
Ex: - He has been in Paris. He stays or lives there. موجود ويقيم في المكان          
Ex: - He has been to Paris. He went Paris and came back.ذهب وعاد من مكان    

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The Past Perfect Tense      زمن الماضى التام البسيط
Ex: - First, I did my homework. Then, I went to bed.بعد كل كلمة ياتي ماضى بسيط
Ex: - After I had done my homework, I went to bed.ماضى تام +ماضى بسيط       
Ex: - As soon as we had finished watering the garden, it rained.
Ex: - She didn’t marry  until she had graduated from university.حالة الاولي 
Ex: - No student left until he had finished his exam.الحالة الثانية                    
Ex: - He refused to leave until he had taken his money.   في وجود الفعل يرفض
Ex: - The report wasn't typed until it had been revised. في حالة المجهول      
Ex: - When I had arrived, the train left.  لقد لحقت بالقطار                             
Ex: - When I arrived, the train had left. لم ألحق  بالقطار                             
Ex: - After (had played – played – playing), I had a shower.مفيش فاعل        
Ex: - Before (doing – did – had done) the shopping, she had gone to work.
Ex: - Having been arrested, the thief was taken to prison.في المجهول         
Ex: - Having studied his lesson, the student went out with friends.في المعلوم
Ex:- On seeing the snake , he ran away .الفاعل لابد ان يكون واحد في الجملتين       
EX: - No sooner had he finished studying than he traveled to Aswan.
Ex: - Hardly had he finished his meal when he went out.
Ex: - He had no sooner finished studying than he traveled to Aswan.
Ex: - He had hardly finished his meal when he went out.
EX: No sooner did he finish studying exam, he went outside with friends.
Ex: - Immediately on finishing studying, he went out.
Ex: - Shortly after finishing his meal, he went out.
Ex: - It was only when I had turned on the light that he entered the room.
Ex: - It wasn’t until I had switched on the light that he entered the room.
Ex: - When I visited him, he (had had - was having) a shower so I didn’t see him.لم ارى الشخص 
Ex: - When I visited him, he (had had- was having) shower so I saw him.
Ex: - He is such a friendly assistant. He (has –had) worked for me since he was 20.الجملة الأولى مضارع بسيط فتكون الجملة الثانية مضارع تام                                     Ex: - He used to be a friendly assistant .He (has – had ) worked for me since he was 20.الجملة الأولى ماضى بسيط   فتكون الجملة الثانية ماضى تام                        Ex: - She is glad she is a businesswoman. This (is – has been- had been) her ambition ever since she was young .الطموح اصبح ماضى لانها بالفعل حققت        

Found/ realized/guessed/understand/discovered/thought بعد الأفعال الآتية يأتي ماضي تام
Ex: - When I left the shop, I discovered that I had lost my bag.
Ex: - On reaching my office, I realized that I had forgotten my mobile.
Ex: - We were having dinner when a mouse when a mouse got into the flat .we (left – have left – had left – leaving) the door open.الحدث الاول ماضى تام 
Ex: - I arrived ten minutes late .the match (has started – started – had started – was starting) ten minutes earlier. الحدث الأول ماضى تام                    
Ex: - Once I had seen/ saw the advertisement, I applied for the job.بمجرد ان
Ex: - The moment I had seen/ saw the advertisement, I applied for the job. 
انتبه من الروابط الزمنية اللي تدل على الماضى التام قد ياتي ورائها مضارع بسيط او تام اذا اتي مستقبل في الجملة الثانية after/ as soon as / before / by the time / till/ until/ once / the moment /….)
Ex: - After I finish / I have finished my work, I will visit Hady in hospital.
Ex: - He won’t go out until he studies / has studied his lessons.
Ex: - Don’t leave home until your mother comes / has come. النهي في الاول 
Ex: - Once I meet him, I will tell him the truth.
Ex: - It was the first time I had played squash.الفعل الأول ماضي                    
Ex: - It is the first time I have played squash.الفعل الأول مضارع                     
Ex: - By 2005, we had travelled to Paris.بعد حرف الجر التاريخ ماضي                 
Ex: - By 2050, we will have travelled to Paris.خلي بالك مستقبل تام                   
Ex: - It is / has been a month since I last met Habiba.
Ex: - I had studied. After that, I went out.خلي بالك ياتي ورائها ماضى بسيط            
Ex: - I visited the Aswan Dam last year. Before that I had visited Alex.
Ex:- When we got to the spot موقع , the fire ( had burnt- had been burning ) all day .ماضى تام مستمر علشان كلمة                                                       
    
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The comparison        الصفات المقارنة  
Of )/ ( has/ have )the same length نفس الطول = as long as
(Of )( has / have ) the same age نفس العمر = as old/ young as
(of) / ( has / have ) the same price نفس السعر = as cheap/expensive as
(of)/ ( has / have ) the same weight نفس الوزن = as heavy/ light as
(of)/ ( has / have ) the same strength نفس القوة = as strong as
(of)/ ( has / have ) the same width نفس العرض = as wide as
(of)/ ( has / have ) the same depth نفس العمق = as deep as
Ex: - Habiba isn't so old/ young as Judy.تستخدم في النفي صفات التساوي                   
Ex: - This car is exactly the same as my car. التشابه التام بين شيئين                    
Ex: - Mohammed is almost as tall as his father.تستخدم عند شبه التساوي               
Ex: - Mohammed is taller than Hamza.صفات المقارنة نضع التكوين الآتي                 
Ex: - English is more interesting than Arabic             في حالة الصفات الطويلة       Ex: - Arabic is less interesting than English.

real / true / right / wrong / fun / like الصفات التالية تعامل معاملة الصفات الكبيرة  **
Ex: - she is more like her father than her mother.
Ex: - He is growing fatter and fatter every day.اللي بعد و زي اللي قبلها            
Ex: - Fady is stronger than Sammy.     Ex: - Sammy is weaker than is Fady.
Ex: - Sammy is less stronger than Fady.يمكن استخدام اقل قبل صفات المقارنة                   
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clever/ common/ cruel/ gentle/ narrow/ pleasant/ polite/ quiet/ simple/ stupid/ tired )هذه الصفات تعامل طويلة وقصيرة                            
Ex: - This Street is narrower than the other street.
Ex: - This Street is more narrower than the other street.
Ex: - He is the stupidest person I have ever met.
Ex: - He is the most stupid person I have ever met.
Ex: - Sammy is much taller than Mary. 
Ex: - English is much more interesting than Arabic.
Ex: - Going by bus is a lot cheaper than going by plane.
Ex: - Going by plane is much more expensive than going by bus.
** any / no / a bit / a lot لاتستخدم هذه الكلمات إذا  جاء بعد صفة المقارنة اسم          
Ex: - I have a (far –bit – quite- lot) cheaper car than all my friends.
 Much more + صفة طويلة او اسم لايعد  
Ex: - I have much more money than him.
 A few more + اسم يعد جمع
Ex: - I have a few more friends than my brother.
 Many more + اسم يعد جمع
Ex: - Many more customers came to the restaurant today than yesterday.
 Some more + اسم يعد جمع او اسم لايعد 
Ex: - Today, I've done some more work than yesterday.
Ex: - I revised some more lessons today than yesterday.
 The + مقارنة   .............The………….. +مقارنة       كلما ..............كلما
Ex:-The more you eat, the fatter you get.
Ex:-The more you read, the less ignorantجهل you are.
Ex:-The slower you drive, the safer you arriveيصل.
للمقارنة بين طرفيين ولكن بدون  than   
Ex:-Of the two brothers, Mira is the taller.
Ex:-Who is the ( taller – tallest)Ali or Sammy?
لاحظ هنا انه يستخدم ضمير مفعول او فاعل +فعل                                                     
Ex:-He is taller than I am.                        Ex:-He is taller than me.
Ex:-Susanna is the tallest pupil in the class.صفات التفضيل تاخذ              est
Ex:-English is the most interesting subject.مع الصفات الطويلة                     
Ex:-Arabic is the least interesting subject.
 The least+ صفة قصيرة
Ex:-This is the least cheap mobile.
يستخدم صفة التفضيل مباشرة بعد الملكية او بعد ضمائر الملكية                                      
Ex:-The world’s largest / deepest ocean is the Pacific ocean.
Ex:-Naguib Mahfouz is Egypt's ( the best – best ) novelist.لانضع   the
Ex:-Is Habiba your (youngest- the youngest ) brother?
Ex:-She is the most beautiful I have ever seen.
Ex:-I have never seen such a beautiful.
Ex:-I have never seen a girl as beautiful as her.
Ex:-This is the very best drink. تاتي مع التفضيل ولكن لا تأتي مع المقارنة               
Ex:-The Nile is the longest river in the world.في حالة التفضيل                     
Ex:-No river in the world is as long as the Nile.في حالة التساوي                 
Ex:- No river in the world is longer than the Nile.في حالة المقارنة              
 Elder / eldest + noun تستخدم مع أفراد الأسرة الواحدة                                  
Ex:-She is my elder sister.                      Ex:-He is my eldest brother.
The oldest of +اسم جمع               He is the oldest of his friends
The oldest in+              اسم مفرد He is the oldest in his class.
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Expressing the future حالات المستقبل                                   الوحدة الثالثة   
1- Will +infinitive
Ex: - The car (can’t – mustn't – shouldn't – won’t) start.مع الآلات التي لا تعمل 
Ex:- I will be 17 next year .مع العمر                                                               Ex:- Our school ( will – is going to ) be 20 years next month.    
Ex: - I think he will win tomorrow’s match .تنبؤ بدون دليل                               
Ex: - Mum has just decided that that she (will – is going to ) buy a car.قرار
Ex: - I (will – am going to) go shopping with you if you like .العرض            
Ex: - Will you help me to solve this problem? الطلب                                      
Ex: - I promise I will take you to the party with me.الوعد                              
Ex: - If you study hard, you will succeed.الحالة الأولى الشرطية                           
Ex: - If you don't keep quiet, I will send you out .التهديد                                
Ex: - Be careful or you will get hurt.    Ex: - Study hard or you will fail .التحذير  
(I’m sure       , I think        , I hope        , I believe        , I hope        , I expect         , I suppose   ,    I’m afraid, I promise) تستخدم ايضا مع هذه الافعال لو وجدت في الجملة                     
Ex:- I expect Mohammed( will – is going to ) get this job. He has all the skills and qualifications needed.
(Probably,     possibly, certainly, perhaps.)لو وجدت هذه الظروف ايضا            
Ex: - The killer will probably stay in prison for the rest of his life.
Ex: - You sweep the floor and I will prepare the food.تحديد الادواروالمهام
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2- Going to + infinitive 
Decided – plan   - intend تستخدم مع هذه الكلمات    القرار – التخطيط - النية       
Ex: - I intend to spend the mid-year holiday in Alex .I’m going to spend it in Alex.
Ex: - I (will – am going to) rent a flat to marry in . This is my plan .
Ex: - I've decided what to do at the weekend. I (will – am going to ) visit my grandparents.
Ex: - She is pregnantحامل. She is going to have a baby.تنبؤ قائم على دليل        
Ex: - It’s dark and cloudy .I think It’s going to rain.
Ex: - Take care! The car is going to run you over.في حالة التحذير                   
Ex: - There isn't a cloud in the sky, it (will– is going to) be a fine and sunny day.خلي بالك من المثال ده كويس هنا مش هنختار will
3- The present continuous Tense المضارع المستمر يدل على المستقبل             
Ex: - The mechanic (will repair – is repairing) my car tomorrow afternoon. It's arranged. خلي بالك من الترتيبات                                           
EX: I’m travelling to Aswan next week .السفر                                             
See- stay – visit – meet – go –come-send هذه الأفعال تأتي مضارع مستمر اذا وجدت
Ex: - I’m meeting them on Sunday.
Ex: - He is getting married next Friday .المناسبات الاجتماعية                          
Ex: - The Company is sending a delegation to the conference next week.الأنشطة التى تقوم بها المؤسسات والاشخاص                                                              
4- The present simple Tense المضارع البسيط يدل على المستقبل                           
Ex: - The bus leaves at nine o’clock.مع وسائل المواصلات                                 
Ex: - The museum opens at 10 o’clock.
Ex: - The school starts at 8 o’clock. . مواعيد رسمية                                        
Ex: - The match starts at 9 sharp tomorrow.
Ex: - The launch of the spaceship is at 10 a.m. next Friday.
Ex: - The concert الحفلة/ film/ play المسرحية / show العرض starts at 11 o'clock tonight.
Ex: - The lessonالدرس starts in half an hour.
After / before / when / as soon as / till / until / if / when / whenever/ while / by the time .خلي بالك من الروابط الزمنية تاني مرة اهو                    
Ex: - When she arrives, she will tell us all about the concert لم تصل
Ex: - When she has arrived, she will tell us all about the concert. 
Ex: - As soon as I hear the news, I will tell you.
Ex: - I won't leave until he comes.
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5-The future continuousالمستقبل المستمر
 will be + v.ing
Ex: - I’ll be playing tennis from 7 to 9 p.m. tomorrow.
Ex: - This time next year , Ola will be studying medicine at university.
Ex: - In two years' time , we will be living in our new house in Cairo.
Ex: - The world’s temperature will still be rising in the future.خلي بالك   
 may be + v. -ing.
Ex: - Many more people may be moving to Cairo in the next 50 years.أحداث غير مؤكدة                                                                                                        EX:When she’s 21, she may be working in London.  

6- The future perfect tense   المستقبل التام
 will have + p. p
Ex:- She will have answered the test by 10 o'clock . 
 will have been + p.pفي المجهول  
By +                       المستقبل  in +              المستقبل  until / for+ المستقبل
 By the end of the day / week/ month /year  By 2020/2030/2040/……
 By tomorrow / by next year / by now / …  In 3 years' time / in ten years' time.     By this time next week / by this time month
Ex: - By 2050 , electric cars will have replaced petrol cars.
Ex: - By 2200, very few people will use petrol cars .خلي بالك مستقبل بسيط لأن الحدث حقيقي                                                                                                            
Ex:- Half of the world population will speak English by 2050.الحدث حقيقي    
Ex:- By this time next week , the exam results will ( have been published – have published – publish – be publishing )
Ex:- Scientists say that by 2020 , the glaciersانهار جليد in Montana ( are melting – will have melted – melt – have melted )
Ex: - Environmentalists hope that in the next ten years more electricity (will be produced – has been produced – produced – is being produced

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Unit 4         Grammar
Making suggestion عمل الاقتراحات
 What about / + noun / V + ing …..?
Ex: - What about playing chess       Ex:- What about a walk in the street 
 How about + noun / V + ing …..? 
Ex: - How about playing chess?        Ex: - How about a walk in the street? 
 Have you considered + V + ing…..? 
Ex:- Have you considered spending a night in Alex ?
 would you consider + V + Ing? ؟ 
Ex: - Would you consider having fish for lunch?
 Have you thought about + V + ing? 
Ex: - Have you thought about trying a new sport?
 Why don’t you / we + inf? 
Ex: - Why don’t we go out for dinner?
 What if you / we + inf? 
Ex: - What if we have fish for lunch?
 Shall we + inf ……? 
Ex: - Shall we go to the club?
 May I suggest + V + ing? 
Ex: - May I suggest going to the club?
 wouldn’t it be better to + inf …..? 
Ex: - Wouldn’t it be better to have fish for lunch ?
 Let's + INF … 
Ex: - Let’s have fish for dinner.
 You / we (can / could / should) + inf 
Ex: - We could have fish for lunch.
 I suggest / I would suggest + noun / V + ing اقترح.....
Ex:- I suggest having fish for lunch. 
Ex:- I would suggest having fish for lunch.
 I think you / we should + inf 
Ex:- I think we should go to the club.
 I would recommend + V + ing 
Ex:- I would recommend going to the club .

 We should probably consider + V + ing 
Ex: - We should probably consider going to the club.
 My suggestion / recommendation would be to + inf....
Ex: - My suggestion would be to have lunch in a restaurant.
 Let's not + inf           =            Don't let us + inf 
Ex: - Let's not go out in this bad weather.
Ex: - Don’t let us go out in this bad weather.
 Consider + V + ing
Ex: - Have you considered having a holiday to reduce burnout?
 Consider + not + V + ing 
Ex: - Would you consider not taking the driving test tomorrow?
 Suggest / recommend + V + ing
Ex: - I suggest spending the weekend in the countryside.
Ex: - I would recommend spending the weekend in the countryside.
 Suggest / recommend + (that) + فاعل + (should) + مصدر
Ex: - I suggest that Sammy should join the university.
Ex: - I suggest that Sammy join the university.
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Modal verbs الأفعال الناقصة
Should / shouldn’t
Ex: - I think he should apply for this job.لعمل اقتراحات                             
Ex: - What do you think I should do to improve my English? للنصيحة      
Should      =       ought to =     had better     =     if I were you, I’d …
Ex: - You should be more careful.        Ex: - You should look for a new job.
Ex: - You should / ought to be studying for your exams.تستخدم عندما يكون الفاعل لايفعل الشىء بطريقة 
Should / ought to have + p.p.كان ينبغى ان يفعل الشىء ولكنه لم يفعل                      
Ex: - You didn't study your lessons. You should have studied your lessons
Shouldn’t / oughtn't to have + p.p.كان لاينبغى ان يفعل الشىء ولكنه فعله                
Ex: - The e- mail shouldn't have been read.
 can / could /was / were able to                   can/ can’tالمقدرة في المضارع
Ex:- It isn’t very heavy. I can carry it. 
Ex:- I can ride a bicycle but I can’t drive a car.
Am/ is / are able to + inf             Ex:- He is able to drive a car.
Am/ is /are capable of + v.ing     Ex:- He is capable of driving a car.
Have/ has the ability to + inf       Ex:- He has the ability to drive a car.
Have/ has the capacity to + inf    Ex:- He has the capacity to drive a car.
Have/ has the ability of + v.ing    Ex:- He has the ability of driving a car.
Have/ has the capacity of + v.ing  Ex:- He has the capacity of driving a car.
Ex:- I may / might / could go to the club tomorrow .= perhaps I will go to the club .لاحتمال حدوث الشىء في المضارع او المستقبل                                     
Smell, taste, see, hear, touch, think, believe, remember, understand
Ex:- In the past people could drive car without a license.تستخدم مع افعال الحواس
 Could have + p.p. شىء كان من الممكن فعله ولكنه لم يفعله                            
Ex:- I had 700 pounds. I could have bought a gold ring, but I decided to buy a new mobile.
Ex:- I don’t know where Martha is. She could have gone to the club.استنتاج
Ex:- They could have been lost but the map saved them.كان ممكن ان يحدث ولم    
Must & have toيعبران عن الالزام الداخلي والالزام الخارجي                                 
Ex: - You are strongly advised to visit him. You (must- should) visit him.
Ex: - You have to wear a helmet when you ride a motorcycleالزام خارجي   
Ex: - You must come and drink tea with me.دعوة حارة                               
Ex: - I must remember to buy bread .لتذكير انفسنا بفعل شىء                             
Ex: - Dad must have left already. I don’t see his car.استنتاج مؤكد في الماضى      
Ex: - You have to pass our exams to go to university.
Ex: - We've got to give in our homework tomorrow.ممكن تكون بديل            
need toيحتاج الي فعل الشىء                                                                         + 
Ex: - We need to revise for next week’s exam
Ex: - I (must – had to) leave work early yesterday as I was ill.
Ex: - Last week I was to stay with my grandfather in hospital.الالزام بفعل يكون 
Mustn’t التحريم                                      don’t have to
Ex: - Student mustn’t be late for school.
Ex: - It’s banned for you to come late. You mustn’t come late.
Ex: - I (mustn’t – didn’t have to) wake up early yesterday because it was holiday.
Ex:- I needn't have bought more bread. We already have a lot .انا اشتريت       
Unit 5     Grammar
Phrasal Verbsالافعال الاصطلاحية 
Ex:-I looked afterيعتني ب my sister while mum was out .
Ex:- He looks down onيحتقر  us .        Ex:- I'm looking for يبحث عنmy keys. 
Ex:- I look forward toيشتاق الي hearing from you . 
Ex:- I look upينظر في كلمة new word in my dictionary .
Ex:-It was a hard day for her. Her car broke downيتعطل on her way home
Ex:-I found outيكتشف why Sama was very angry.
 I picked up my keys and went out. ممكن ان ياتي الفعل مع حرف الجر            
 I picked my keys upيلتقط and went out.ممكن فصل الفعل عن حرف الجر              
EX: Since his wife passed awayيموت, he hasn't left his room.
EX: When wants to catch up withيلاحق his friends.
1-Inseparable transitive Phrasal Verbsافعال لايمكن فصلها                        
EX: I’m counting onيعتمد على my sister to send me the letter.

2- Separable transitive Phrasal Verbsافعال يمكن فصلها                          
Up / down / in / out / on / offيحدث مع حروف الجر هذه                             
EX:-The terrorists blew upيفجر the car. 
EX: The terrorists blew the car up.
EX:I will take the jacket off.


Fade out  يتلاشى Break down يتعطل Call on يزور Come on يدخل
Let down يخذل شخص Ring back يعاود الاتصال Talk...into يقنع شخص Believe in  يؤمن ب
Decide on  يحدد  Drop out يترك الدراسة  Fall off ينخفض Grow up يتصرف بنضج
Hang out  يتسكع Look out  يحذر Run into يقابل بالصدفة Run out of ينفذ
Get away with يفلت من العقاب Get on with  يكون على وفاق Get over  يتغلب على Get rid of يتخلص من
Go back يعود الي  Take after  يشبه شخص في العئلة Bring about يسبب Bring up  يربي طفل
Call off  يلغي اجتماع Carry out ينفذ Clean up ينظف Figure out يحل المشكلة 
Fill in  يملىء استمارة Give up يستسلم Put away يضع شىء في مكانه Make up يفبرك قصة
Put off يؤجل Put on  يرتدي Switch off يطفىء Throw away يتخلص من
Try on  يجرب  Turn down  يخفض الصوت Turn up يعلي الصوت Turn on/off يطفىء

Unit 6    Grammar
Causativeالسببية
Ex:- Her mother made her clean all the house.               Make+obj+inf
= her mother forced her to clean the entire house.       Force +obj to+inf
Ex:- She was made to clean all the house .                              Make +to +INF
= she was forced to clean the entire house.                            Force +to+INF
Ex:- My father let me go out with my friends .                      Let+obj+INF
Ex:- My father allowed me to go out with my friends .    Allow+obj+to+INF
Ex:- I was allowed to use my brother's computer .
Ex:- He let himself be tricked by a stranger .
Ex: - Don't let yourselves be laughed at.
Ex: - They don't allow smoking here.                 Allow +verb+ing بدون فاعل 
Ex: - I want you to check my cat as it is broken down.
Ex: - The teacher stopped us from making a noise.    Stop +obj+from+ing
Ex: - The teacher stopped us making a noise.
Ex: - Please, get Samy to help you.
Ex: - Mira got her friends helping her during the party.
Ex: - Madonna permits / allow her friends to use her calculator.
Ex: - I have repaired my car.
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Grammar unit 7
The Present Perfect Continuous Tenseالمضارع التام المستمر 
Have, has + been + verb + ing.
Ex: - She has been studying all the day. (It means that she studies her lessons all the day till now).
Ex: - I have been preparing lunch. We can eat now.
Ex: - I (tried – am being tried – have been tried – have been trying) to repair the door of my car for the last two hours without any success.

Unit 8                 Grammar
Passive & activeالمبني للمجهول  
Ex: - I play football. (Active)    Ex: - Football is played by me. (Passive)
Ex:- I like flowers .( active )     Ex:- Flowers are liked by me.( passive )
Ex: - Things from supermarkets (steal – are stolen) every day.
1- Yeastلخميرةا (uses- using – is used – has used) in making bread.
2- Professors Zewail (considers – considered – is considered) to be a great scientist.
3- The newspapers (says- is said – are said – say) he stole a lot of money from the bank.
Ex: - If the car (was mended – is being mended) now, how can I go to work?
Ex: - I always drive my son to school but today he (is driving- is driven – is being driven) by his mother.
Ex: - The house (has been built – was built) two years ago.
Ex: - While the lesson (was explained – was being explained) I was taking notes.
Ex: - The university (was built – has been built) since 2000.
Ex: - The flat (was cleaned – has been cleaned). It is tidy now.
Ex: - (Are the police – Have the police been) informed of the robbery?
Ex: - The house collapsed. It (has just been – had just been) built.
1- A lot of problems (has to solve – have to solve – have to be solved).
2- Can this book (publish – been published – be published) the next week?
4- A lot of schools need (to build – be built – to be built) the next year.
People say that -------------- It is said thatلاحظ هذه التحويلات في المجهول      
We think that ---------------- it is thought that
We know that --------------- It is known that
People expected that ------It was expected that
People claimed that ------- It was claimed that
People agreed that ------- It was agreed that.
Ex: - He is said to (stay – be staying) with his mother nowadays.الجملة الثانية مضارع مستمر
Ex:- He was said to have disappeared last month.  الجملة الثانية ماضى
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Unit 9      Grammar
Distributivesالمحددات
Ex:- All ( of ) the women were happy .
Ex:- All Mona's money is at home .ياتي ورائها اسم لايعد لايجمع                         
Ex:- He read all the book .ياتي ورائها ال +اسم مفرد                                          
Ex:- All of us left early = we all left early.ياتي ورائها ضمير مفعول به                

Every / each / either / neither + فعل مفرد + اسم مفرد
Ex: - Every child has received a prize. 
Ex: - Each student wears a uniform. 
Ex: - Either day is fine for me. 
Ex: - Neither answer is correct.

Each / neither / either / everyone + of + محدد + فعل مفرد + اسم جمع
Ex: - Each of the girls was polite. 
Ex: - Either of the hotels is suitable for my stay.
Ex: - Neither of his brothers likes sports

 One of + اسم جمع + فعل مفرد
Ex: - One of the players was sent off during the match.


 Either…… or اما.... او
Ex: - She hardly ever goes to ( neither the cinema or – neither the cinema nor – either the cinema or – either the cinema nor ) the hotel.لوجود بالكاد 
 Neither….nor
Ex: - Neither I nor he is happy.
Ex: - Neither of them is happy.
Both+اسم جمع او ضمير مفعول جمع  او اسمين+فعل جمع  
Ex:- Both of them are happy.          

Some /lots of/ a lot of /any/plenty ofالكثير من                                  
Ex: - Would you like to some tea? في حالة الطلب  والعرض                          

Many/ few/ several /a large number of
Much/ little / a great deal of / a large amount of A lot of Much & many
Ex: - I don't have many pens. نفي         Ex: - How many pens do you have?
Little & fewقليل للعد والكمية                   
Ex: - We have a little time before the match starts.
Ex: - I invited all my friends to my birthday, but only a few attended it.
Ex: - He spoke (little – a little) English so it was difficult to communicate with him.
Ex: - He spoke (little - a little) English so we were able to communicate with him.

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Unit 10                  Grammar
Deductionالاستنتاج في المضارع والماضى
1-Must (be) + صفة  must + -inf.
Ex:- That restaurant must be good. It's always full of people.
2- can’t (be) + صفة                 can’t + -INF. 
Ex: - The restaurant is always full of people. It (must – can’t) be bad.
Ex: - Samy knows a lot about films. He (must – can’t) go to the cinema a lot.
Ex: - They haven’t lived here for a long time. It (can’t – must) be a comfortable place.
Ex: - You just have had lunch .you (must– can’t) be hungry.
3- may / might / could + be + صفة         may / might / could + -inf.
(I’m not sure / I don’t think so / perhaps / possible / probable / likely/ I'm not certain/ I don't know)
Ex: - I can’t find George, perhaps he is out. He (must / might) be out.
Ex: - I ‘m sure she was working yesterday. She (must be working – must have been working) yesterday 
Ex: - Perhaps she was working yesterday .she (might be working – might have been working).
Ex: - Ali (might – mustn’t – must – can’t) have forgotten. He has a very good memory.
Ex: - Look! Ali’s keys are on the table. He (must – might –can’t) have seen them when he left.
Ex: - I `m sure this is my book. It (must – might- can’t) be mine.
Ex: - It’s probable that Ali sold his car last week . He (must –can’t –might) have sold it.
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Would + INF
Ex: - When I was young, I would get up early.
 When I was a child, I used to have a bike .صح مع افعال الملكية والحواس
 When I was a child, I would have a bike. خطا لاتاتي مع افعال المكلية والحواس *
 When I was a child, I used to be strong .صح تاتي مع فعل يكون                
 When I was a child, I would be strong. خطا لاتاتي مع فعل يكون              * 
Ex: - I used to live in Cairo, but I moved to Alex last year.حدث ممتد لفترة        
Ex: - When my uncle was a young man, he used to smoke .صح لان التدخين عادة 
Ex: - When my uncle was a young man, he would smoke .خطا لانه ليس متكرر    
Ex: - I used to get up early.
Ex: - When I was young, I would get up early.لابد من استخدام كلمة دالة على الماضى 
Ex: - When I was younger, I would always help my mother with the houseworkظروف التكرار بعدها

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Unit 11      Grammar
Relative clausesضمائر الوصل  
1-Who = thatللعاقل 
Ex: - Charles Dickens wrote Oliver Twist .He was English.
Ex: - Charles Dickens who / that wrote Oliver Twist was English.
2- Which = thatتستخدم لغير العاقل   
Ex: - Sara bought a mobile. The mobile was expensive.
Ex: - Sara bought a mobile which/ that was expensive.
3- whom =who= thatللعاقل المفعول به لو جاء بعدها ضمير او حرف جر قبلها          
Ex: - These are the men who/whom/that the police arrested.
4- whereتستخدم للمكان        
Ex:- This is the school. I learn in it.
Ex:- This is the school where I learn.
 Where = in which/ at which / for which / by which / to which / from which / about which …خلي بالك ممكن نستخدم هذه الكلمات  
Ex:- This is the school where I learn.
Ex:- This is the school which I learn in.
Ex:- This is the school in which I learn.
5- Whenتستخدم للدلالة على الزمان      
Ex:- Friday is the day when we got up late.
Ex: - 1990 is the year when I was born.
Ex: - Friday is the day (on- at –in –for) which we got up late. Onا
Ex: - 1990 is the year (on- at- for –in) which I was born. In
1- 29th is the day (when – which – who- what) occurs once every 4 years.
2- I will never forget the day (when – which – what – whose) I met my favourite actor on.
6- whoseتستخدم للعاقل للدلالة على الملكية        
Ex: - This is my uncle in whose house we live.
Ex: - That is my uncle whose house we live in.
خلي بالك من هذه الكلمات لو وجدت في الجملة الاختياري تاخذ هذه الحروف الجر لازم           
Meeting at which                       apologize for which
Cause of which                           mean by which
Reason for which                        object to which
Ex: - Yesterday we made a meeting, (who-when- for which – at which) we discussed everything.
Ex: - Dalia made a decision (which- to which – that –on which) Martina objected.
Ex: - Great expectations is a novel (which- in which – where- who) pip tried to achieved all his ambitions except one thing.
Ex: - The reason (which- for which- when – where) he was imprisoned was because he committed robbery.
Ex: - He smiled (which – when – who – by which) he meant he will go.
Ex: - The bus (which – by which – where – when) we go to school by is very old.

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Unit 12 Grammar
Reported speechالكلام المباشر والغير مباشر
Ex:- He ( said– told ) his mother was happy.فعل القول لا ياخذ مفعول                   
Ex:- He ( said – told ) his mother he was happy.فعل القول ياخذ مفعول فهتلاقى اسمين
عند تحويل الظروف فنجد الاتي                                                                            
Now ==then                yesterday ==the day before /the previous day 
This ==that        these ==those         here ==there            ago==before
Tomorrow==the next day/the following day                today==that day 
كمان خلي بالك  من دول مهمين                                                                          
Then ==نختار ماضى مستمر                             the day before==نختار ماضى تام
The following day ==نختار مستقبل او ماضى مستمر  two days before ==ماضى تام
Ex: - He told us that he (has travelled – will travel – was travelling) the next day.
Ex: -she told us that she (watching –was watching –had watched) TV then
Ex: -she told us that she (watching –was watching –had watched) TV the day before.
Ex:- The teacher told us that the sun rises in the east .لاتتغير الازمنة لانها حقيقة
لاتتغير الازمنة والظروف بعد هذه الكلمات اذا جاءت بعد فعل القول                                        
(a moment ago – a short time ago – now – has just said )لاتتغير الازمنة      
Ex:- Judy said a moment ago ,”I study my lessons every day.”
هذه الافعال لو استخدمت كفعل قول ياتي بعدها المصدر                                                  +       
Promised / offered / advised /agreed / threatened / reminded / decided /refused/ encourages / persuaded / instruct
Ex:- He promised to give me all the money I needed.
هذه الافعال ياتي بعدها الجرند مباشرة  
Suggested / admitted / denied/ apologized for / objected to / insisted on/ accuse of / congratulate …on / charge ….with /remind ….of / thank… for / blame... For                                                                   
Ex:-. He suggested discussing the problem then. 
Ex: - He said, “I wasn’t there when the crime happened.’’ 
He denied being there when the crime happened. 
He denied that he was there when the crime happened.الفعل مثبت            
افعال القول المستخدمة في الجملة الاستفهامية في المباشر والغير مباشر                                
 Wonder / want to know / would like to know / inquire / enquire
Ex: - He (asked – wondered – wanted to know – inquired) his friend if he wanted to go with him .لان هناك فاعلان                                                  
Ex: - He asked me what ( I have bought- I had bought – had I bought )
هذه الافعال ياتي بعدها المصدر او في حالة النهي ياتي الاتي                                             
Asked/ order / advised/ warned/told / recommend / suggest to + inf
Ex: - He asked them to listen carefully. في حالة الامر                                    
Ex: - Ali asked Hany not to touch the uncovered electric wire.في حالة النهى  

1- He said to me, " you (would have been – would be – will be – were being) tired tomorrow."
2- Mariam said to me I (was reading – have read – had read – am reading) a novel now. "
3- Hamza says I (will have to – have to – can – had to) borrow some money yesterday.”
4- Mother said to her daughter, “I will buy you a computer (the following day – the next day – tomorrow – the day after).”
GOOD LUCK MY ALL STUDEENTS
MR ABDLRHIM TEWFIK ABADY             01009445154

 

اسئلة على القواعد

1-The American revolution ثورة (takes place - has taken place – took place) in 1992. 
2-Spain (win – wins – won – has won) 2010 world cup final against Holland.

3-The First World War (lasted – last - was lasting - has lasted) for four years. From 1914 to 1918
4-My grandfather (have lived – lived – has lived) for few months before his death
5-I usually (visit – visits – has visited – visited) the zoo when I was young.            
6-When I was in France; I (went – go – goes – has gone) to the beach every day.
7-In my last job, I (paid – had paid – have paid – was paid) very little money.
8-A baby (is born – was born – has born – had born) every second in the world these days.
9-Many people (are killed – were killed – had killed – has killed) in those days.
10-No good solution (was found- has been found – had been found) since the problem arose.
11-In the past, people use to live in mud- brick house but now they (aren’t- aren't living- don't- doesn’t).
12-In the past, he used to be happy but now he (don’t – doesn't – isn't – aren’t).
13-:-Things are no longer cheap as they (are used – have used – were used – used) to be.
14-This piece of land ( was used to – used to – is used to – didn't use to ) but it now has lots of housed built on.
15-He used to be a millionaire. All people know he ( has – has had – had is having ) lots of money.
16-He ( is – has always been – was – is always ) a heavy smoker. He used to smoke 30 cigarettes a day but now he ( didn't – don't – doesn't ).
17-While Hamza was crossing the road, he ( had – was having- has had – is having )
18-She was cooking when she (has burnt- burnt- was burning – had burnt)
19-As I was walking down the street, I (was meeting – met – has met) my friend.
20- Adam was cycling along the way home when he (has injured- was injuring- injured) himself.
21-He was fighting with his neighbours when he had a heart attack and (has died – had died – was dying – died)
22-While I was working in the garden, my brother (watched – has watched – watches - was watching) a film.
23-While drinking juice, Sama was chatting with her friends online. This means……….
a:-Sama was drinking juice.                      b:-Sama's friends were drinking juice
c:-Sama and her friends were drinking juice                     d. none of the
24- Mohammed (was falling – fell – had fallen –had been falling) asleep while reading a book.
25- What (have you done – had you done- did you do – were you doing) when he broke the vase? Why didn't you stop him?
26- Yesterday at this time, she (was sat – was sitting – has sat- sit) at her desk studying.
27- While Judy was reading, jack (had watched- was watched – was watching – watched) a film.
28- She lent her car to Lukas while his (is repairing- was repairing – was repaired- was being repaired).
29- When I met him, he (went – had gone – has gone – was going) to the chemist’s. He was in a hurry to reach it before it closed.
30- On my way home, I (found- had found- was finding – had been finding) a wallet at the side of the road.
31- They (had heard- heard- was hearing- had been hearing) the explosion when they were waiting for the bus.
32- When we ate our meal she, she (was paying- has paid – paid- had been paying) the bill.
33- I was doing my homework, when the pen (runs – was running –ran – has run) out of ink.
34- Communication systems (have developed–developed) in the past ten years.
35- The world climate (had changed – has changed) over the ages.
36- In recent years, Egypt’s production of natural gas (increased – increases - has increased – was increasing).
         37- This is the first time I (went- have been) to this place
38- We have owned this house (for – since) 1998.
39- He has known his friends (for – since) three years.
40-- She had stayed here (for – since) her marriage.
41-- He has known the same friends (since – for) his childhood.
42-- Henry (made - has made) 13 films and I think his latest is the best.
43-- Henry (made - has made) 13 films before he was killed in an accident.
44-- Lee (presented - has represented) his country on many occasions and hopes to go on.
45-- Lee (presented - has represented) his country on many occasions but his injury forced him to retire.
46-- After the house (had – has – had been – has been) painted, we furnished it.
47-- I (had come – was coming – came – has come) as soon as you sent for me.
48-- By the time I got there, the supermarket (will close – is closed – has closed – had closed
49-- I (don't – hasn't – didn't- haven’t) read the newspaper until I had had breakfast.
50-- The driver waited until the passengers (had got – has got – got – was getting) on the bus.
51-- The thief (didn’t arrest – hadn't arrested- wasn't arrested – hasn't been arrested) until the police had come.
52-- He (has worked – had worked – worked) as a teacher after he graduated.
53-- As soon as the milk (has boiled- boils – boils- is boiling), I turned off the gas.
54-- When the train arrived, everyone (has run – had run – ran – was running) to get on first.
55-- When everyone else left, I (left – had left – was left – was leaving) alone at home.
56-- When I visited Hany, he (has finished- finished- had finished- was finishing) his work, so we both went to the club.
57-- After (had played – played – playing), I went out.
58-- Before (doing – did – had done) the shopping, she went to work.
59-- Having (treated – was treated – been treated – treating) badly, he left his job.
60-- After (had cleaned – cleaned – cleaning – has cleaned) the flat, she organized the furniture.
61-- When I visited him, he (had had- was having) shower so I saw him.
62- He is such a friendly assistant. He (has –had) worked for me since he was 20.
63-- He used to be a friendly assistant .He (has – had) worked for me since he was 20.
64-- When I visited Samir, he (had done – was doing – did – has done) his homework, so I helped him.
65-- When I checked the answer once more I realized I (have understood – understood – had understood- understanding) the question wrong.
66-- I won't go out until it (stopped – had stopped – has stopped – stop) raining.
67-- As soon as the milk (boil – boils – have boiled- had boiled), I will turn the gas off.
68-- London isn't as (bigger- big – biggest- very big) as New York.
69-- The library and the lab are the same (high- higher –height-highest).
70-- Football is (more – the more – most- the most) popular than any other game in the world.
71-- My flat is (more big – less big – as big – the biggest) than yours.
72-- He ran (fast- faster- fastest- further) and faster till he reached the cottage.
73-- Climbing is a (more- lot more – most- much more) dangerous than other sports.
74-- I can't stay any (longest- long – longer- very long) although I'd like to.
75-- The lion is (more- very – most- much) stronger than the wolf.
76-- You should wear a (little – more – few – very) heavier clothes than this in such cold weather.
77- This year, I have seen a (some- much – few – lots) more films than last year
78--The higher you climb the (more- less- most – least) energy you use.
79--Which is (farthest- far – farther – as far) above sea level: Everest or Kilimanjaro.
80-- We have bought a new house and (will move – are moving) in very soon. 
81-- I (will catch – am catching) the 6:30 plane tomorrow. 
82- My grandparents (will celebrate – are celebrating) their golden wedding next week. 
83-- I've bought a piano. It (will delivered – is being delivered) this afternoon. 
84-- I (will travel – am travelling) to Alex tomorrow. I have bought the tickets.
85-- He admitted (borrow – borrowed – borrows – borrowing) my pen without asking me.
86-- I still remember (to visit – being visited – visit – visiting) Alex when I was young. It was amazing.
87-- He denied (to be – had been – was – being) at the scene of the crime.
88-- I remember (see – to see – seeing – saw) your glasses on the table next to the door. Look for them there.
89- A new charity this year. (Supporting – to support –supporter –supported) The school arranged 
90-- Habiba finished (to have eaten – to eat – eating – eaten) his dinner at 6.30.
91-- Judy admitted not (to be known – knowing – to know – know) how to open the door.
92-- Ali prefers (to have flown – to fly – flew – fly) to Dahab.
93-- Habiba and her sisters practice (to play – playing – played – play) tennis every day after school.
94-- I regret (telling – to tell – have told – am telling) you that Mira won't be joining the team. I know you wanted her with us.
95-She always has her neighbours (do- to be done – done – to do) the shopping for her.
96- I had my watch (be repaired – to repair - repairing – repaired) yesterday at the watchmaker's.
97- This poor fellow had his leg (amputating – to amputate – amputated – be amputated) after the accident.
98- I will get my mother (send – be sent – sent – to send) the letter for me.
99- She (has had – is having – had had – got had) her room cleaned at the moment.
100- We had to have (checked our car – our car be checked – our car checked – our car was checked) before we started the journey.
101- After waiting for ages for a plumber we (get – had – have – having) the leaking tap fixed.
102- They are getting their uncle (lend – lending – to be lending – to lend) them his house in the country.
103- I (got – get – had – having) my secretary retype the mail.
104- She (is having – has had – had got – will have got) the rent paid by her parents since she joined university.
105- You can't use the car now. It (is repaired – is being repaired – was repaired) at the moment.
106- The bed (makes – is making – is being made – was being made) by my mother at the moment.
107- The mechanic (is being repaired – is repaired – is repairing) my car now.
108- None of the passengers (is hurt – had hurt- was hurt – hurt) in yesterday's accident.
109- She (is attacked – has been attacked – was attacked – had attacked) by a lion while walking in the forest.
110- Japan's 2011 earthquake (levelled- was levelled – has levelled) several buildings.هدم
111- The flat was still (decorated – be decorated- been decorated- being decorated) when I arrived.
112- She couldn't answer the phone because she ( was interviewed – was being interviewed – interviewed – was interviewing ) on TV.
113- All the wheat (is stored – has stored – has been stored) in the granary. It's already full.
114-several logos (have compared – has been compared – have been compared) to choose one for the campaign.
115- Something (has been gone – has gone – have gone) wrong with my TV. I will take it to the electrician.
116- After the accused man (has been found – had found – had been found – found) guilty, he was sent to prison.
117- When she saw the thief in her room, she (had cried – had been cried – has cried – cried) for help.
118- (Having arrested – Having been arrested – After the criminal arrested) he was sent to prison.
119- Money (knows – has known – is knowing – is known) to be the root of all evil.
120- People (are believed – believe –are believing- are being believed) that Alexander the Great was kind.
121- It (reports – has reported- reported – reporting) that the criminal ran away.
122- Temperatures are thought ( to be risen- will rise- to rise- will have risen ) tomorrow.
123- They (are feared – fear – be feared – were feared) that the enemy will launch another attack.
124- Teachers enjoy (love- loving- be loved – being loved) by their students.
125- The robbers left the site without (seeing- see- to be seen – being seen) by anyone.
126- I remember (to be deceived- being deceived- deceiving – deceived) by the same man many years ago.
127- Teachers enjoy (love- loving- be loved – being loved) by their students.
128- The robbers left the site without (seeing- see- to be seen – being seen) by anyone.
129- I remember (to be deceived- being deceived- deceiving – deceived) by the same man many years ago.
130- In the past, people use to live in mud- brick house but now they (aren’t- aren't living- don't).
131- In the past, he used to be happy but now he (don’t – doesn't – isn't – aren’t).
132- Things are no longer cheap as they (are used – have used – were used – used) to be.
133- This piece of land (was used to – used to – is used to – didn't use to) but it now has lots of housed built on.
134- He used to be a millionaire. All people know he (has – has had – had is having) lots of money.
135- He (is – has always been – was – is always) a heavy smoker. He used to smoke 30 cigarettes a day but now he (didn’t – don't – doesn’t).
136- He is in the secondary school studying many subjects, (that – who- which – what) means he has to study hard.
137- He killed an innocent child, (who – which – that) was very cruel of him.
138- The boys (who punished – punished – were punished), were kept late in school.
139- The criminals (arrested – who arrested – were arrested) by the police, were taken to prison.
140- The book (who – whose –that- when) lent me is very good.
141- Papyrus (which used – was used – used) for writing in ancient Egypt was made from grass.
142- The bakery (which – when – where- that) I used to buy bread was closed.
143- We have a balcony (where – which – when) overlooks a football ground.
144- Albania is the country (where – who- what- which) Mohammed Ali was born in.
145- The car (who- whose – that – which) colour is red, is mine.
146- The boy (which – whose – that) leg was broken was taken to hospital.
147- Shakespeare (who – which- what – whose) works are read everywhere was a great writer.
148- In the past, Newton was the only scientist (which- who – that – whose) talked about gravity.
149- Everything (which- that – who- what) you ordered has been delivered.
150- This is the most interesting (which – who – that – what) I have ever read.
151- The height (which – at which – for which – of which) space rockets fly is incredible.
152- 1914 was the year (which – at which – in which – where) the First World War broke out.
153- He showed the police the knife (which – with which – on which – of which) he killed the man.
154- The car is a means of transport (by which – in which – at which – on which) I'd like to travel.
155- I didn't understand the sentence (which- at which – with which) he started the interview.
156- He said sorry (by which – to which – at which – which) he meant to apologize.
 

اسئلة المقال

           A pessimist sees the difficulty in every opportunity but, an optimist sees the opportunity in every difficulty .we all agree that …………..is one of the most serious and harmful things in our life and has many side effects  nowadays. also we should put into our consideration that ………..has become one of the most dangerous things in everyone`s life . 
المتشائم يرى الصعوبة في كل فرصة ولكن المتفائل يرى الفرصة في كل صعوبة. نتفق جميعًا على أن ………… .. هو اخطر الأشياء في حياتنا وله الكثير من الاثار الجانبية في الوقت الحاضر. كما يجب أن نضع في اعتبارنا أن ……… .. أصبح من اخطر الأشياء في حياة الجميع.
           Everyone knows that ……………. leads to the regression of any nation depends on it. So we should do our best in order to decrease any harmful points that can come from that matter. Moreover this matter has a negative effect on our society and our environment and all aspects of human life. It has many disadvantages that we can’t ignore its harm and demerits and that which makes government does its best to prevent her people to gain any harms in their life. 
يعلم الجميع أن …………… .. يؤدي إلى تراجع أي أمة تعتمد عليها. لذلك يجب أن نبذل قصارى جهدنا لتقليل الاضرار وتقليل أي نقاط ضارة يمكن أن تأتي من هذا الأمر. علاوة على ذلك فإن هذا الأمر له تأثير سلبي على مجتمعنا وبيئتنا وجميع جوانب الحياة البشرية. ............... له العديد من العيوب التي لا يمكننا تجاهل اضرارها وعيوبها والتي تجعل الحكومة تبذل قصارى جهدها لمنع شعبها من اكتساب أي أضرار في حياتهم.
           I reveal no secret when I say that we have to stand firmly with this matter and try to stop it. We should know how to deal with it. This matter will stop us from achieving self-sufficiency and public awareness .all citizens should participate in. Throughout this matter we can`t achieve progress, welfare and prosperity .for the sake of our country EGYPT it will be one of the main sources of loss and undevelopment. 
لا أفصح عن سر عندما أقول إنه يتعين علينا الوقوف بحزم مع هذا الأمر ومحاولة منعه. يجب أن نعرف كيفية التعامل معه. هذا الأمر سيمنعنا من تحقيق الاكتفاء الذاتي وزيادة الوعي العام ، ويجب على جميع المواطنين المشاركة فيه. من خلال هذا الأمر لايمكننا أن نحقق التقدم والرفاهية والازدهار ، فمن أجل بلدنا مصر ستكون أحد المصادر الرئيسية للخسارة وعدم التقدم.
            It is crystal clear that ……………… will affect the coming generations and we can’t dent that great harms were made and a dark ones will be coming soon .our life today is quite different from life years ago so that matter becomes scary nowadays . Many countries do its best to get rid of it .our youth should first work hard to achieve success and help their country.
من الواضح تمامًا أن ……………… سوف يفيد الأجيال القادمة ، ولا يمكننا أن نضعف من تحقيق إنجازات عظيمة سياتي الظلام قريبًا. حياتنا اليوم مختلفة تمامًا عن حياتنا منذ سنوات حتى يصبح الأمر كذلك ضروري في الوقت الحاضر. تبذل العديد من الدول قصارى جهدها للحصول على الفوائد الكاملة منه. يجب على شبابنا أولاً أن يعملوا بجد لتحقيق النجاح ومساعدة بلدهم
            From what we have mentioned above we can say that due attention must be paid to this matter and never be neglected as it is very dangerous. We should cooperate with each other in order to get the right path and try to solve any problems that face us. Last but not least I shed the light on this serious topic.
مما ذكرناه أعلاه يمكن أن نقول إنه يجب الاهتمام بهذا الأمر وعدم إهماله أبدًا لأنه خطير جدًا. يجب أن نتعاون مع بعضنا البعض من أجل الوصول إلى الطريق الصحيح ومحاولة حل أي مشاكل تواجهنا. أخيرًا وليس آخرًا ، ألقيت الضوء على هذا الموضوع الخطير جدا.